It has now been over two decades since the core ideas of Total Quality Management (TQM) set forth mainly by Edward Deming, Joseph Juran and Krori Ishikawa gained significance and acceptance in the management field. TQM philosophy has not only been confined to industrial settings but has gradually spread to in health care organizations, educational institutions, and not for profit organizations as well as to in many public bureaucratic organizations in many parts of the world.
Impacts and implications of growing economic integration with the United States.
With an area of 10 million square kilometres (over 3.8 million square miles), Canada is the second largest country in the world, but given its population of only about 30 million, it is one of the least densely populated. In 1993, Canada had less than three persons per square kilometres as compared to about twenty-eight persons in the US and forty-seven in Mexico. It has been argued that Canadians, more than most people, tend to define the world and their place in it in terms of geography. In part, this may reflect the feeling of space and unlimited resources that result from the low population density. It may also stem from the very uneven population distribution occasioned by Canada's northern climate: some 80 per cent of Canadians are estimated to live within 320 kilometres (200 miles) of the southern border with the US. This, in turn, generates the strong feelings felt by a small population living immediately adjacent to a very large and powerful one.